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2018年05月 アーカイブ

2018年05月07日

5月12日プラクティス

This is an announcement about the Practice on 12 th May.

Genre : Speaking
Title : Mother’s Day

We have Mother’s Day on 13th May in Japan. Let’s talk about your memory of Mother’s Day.
Before that, I may prepare some tiny quiz about Mother’s Day.

1 Make several groups
2. Simple Quiz(17:45~18:00)
3. Talk about your memory or episode of Mother’s Day(18:00~18:40)

Just relax and freely talk about your memory.
(You also can tell your friends’ funny story about it.)

Let’s have fun
Kazumasa Yasuda

2018年05月10日

5月19日プラクティス

Hello, there:

This is an announcement about Practice on 2018-05-19.

Genre: Speaking / Composition
Title: Let's Tweet in English

Have you ever used Twitter?

In this practice, you’ll have an opportunity to "tweet" to others.

My definition of a "tweet" here is a clear-cut short English paragraph
which consist of a few sentences (single sentence will be OK too).

I'd like to make it a rule that every tweet should have a single idea
to deliver. That's it. There is no other rules. Just relax and
tweet whatever you want!

Let’s have fun :-)

Cheers!

Masakazu Yoshida

2018年05月13日

5月26日プラクティス

Practice 5.26

Title: Notions of marriage (結婚観について)

1)Divide our members into 4 or 5 groups.

2)Discussion

 〇The notion of marriage means only a young couples’ matter and never be his and her families’ matter. (agree or disagree)

  〇Americans’ notions of marriages look like couple’s long journey. 

That means “Not life-long events”.

〇If you would have a young daughter (or your sister) and she said to you “I want marry an American guy.”, will you accept her or not?

                            by Takeo Kuchinaka

2018年05月22日

6月2日プラクティス

Dear ESS members
This is the announcement for the practice on June 2nd, 2018. Everyone, please prepare for your own opinions.
Genre: Debate
Proposition: Japan should prohibit mandatory retirement age system. (日本は定年退職制を禁止すべきである)
Please notice that this debate is nothing but a practice with one type of game, and not necessarily connected with your own standpoint, merits and demerits of you as an independent individual in your social life. Therefore, do your best to win the game as one good way to enrich your experience to present better debate practice in our ESS activity.
Description
1) Make some groups so that each group would consist of 3 members. If 2 members were left, MINAMIHASHI would join the group. If 1 member were left, I would ask the leader to be a special additional judge for 1 group. Be your timekeeper within your group for each of you.

2) Write and prepare major points, advantages and disadvantages of the proposition within 3 minutes, based on the assumption that the proposition would be adopted as actual nationwide policy in Japan.

3) In your group, decide your order to be Affirmative, Negative and Judge. The Affirmative must sit right side of the Negative and left side of the Judge.

4) If you are the Affirmative, argue that the Affirmative policy has great advantages and little disadvantages. If you are the Negative, argue that the Affirmative policy has fewer advantages and greater disadvantages. If you are the Judge, compare the initial link of advantages and disadvantages of the Affirmative policy, whether those points are certainly caused by the Affirmative policy or not and which would outweigh the other. Articulation and grammar, logical persuasiveness would be also important when a comparison of advantages and disadvantages were difficult. However, any argument in the rebuttal speech that was not presented during the constructive speech must be regarded as “new argument” which should not be counted for the decision.

5) Start debate match in the following order. Be the timekeeper for your group and announce the beginning and end of each time. Be sure to take note of your flow sheet while listening to other’s speech.
Affirmative Constructive Speech……………1 minute(肯定側立論1分)
Cross-Examination by the Negative……… 1 minute(否定側による肯定側への反対尋問1分)
Preparation Time………………‥……………1 minute(準備時間1分)
Negative Constructive Speech ………………1 minute(否定側立論1分)
Cross-Examination by the Affirmative……・1 minute(肯定側による否定側への反対尋問1分)
Preparation Time……‥………………………1 minute(準備時間1分)
Affirmative Rebuttal Speech…………………1 minute(肯定側による反論1分)
Cross-Examination by both sides……………1 minute(双方による反対尋問1分)
Preparation Time………………………………1 minute(準備時間1分)
Negative Rebuttal Speech・……………………1 minute(否定側による反論1分)
Decision & Reason by the Judge ……………3 minutes(ジャッジによる勝敗の判定及びその理由3分)
(Go through “step 5)” within 13 minutes.)(「ステップ5)」を13分でやって下さい。)

6) Turn the role clockwise in your group.(時計回りに肯定側、否定側、ジャッジの役割を変える)

7) Repeat the process of 5) with the different role in your group for 13 minutes.( 「ステップ5」を前回と異なる役割により13分で繰り返す。

8) Turn the role clockwise in your group once more.(もう一度、時計周りに肯定側、否定側、ジャッジの役割を変える)

9) Repeat the process of 5) with the other role that you haven’t played in your group for 13 minutes.
(「ステップ5)」の役割でまだやっていない残りの役割を13分でやる)。

10) Discuss overall debate on the proposition.(ディベートの試合の感想を一言ずつ述べる)。

11) Decide the best debater in your group by voting.(自分のグループの多数決でベストディベーターを決める)。

12) Report briefly to all the members the result of the 3 debate match and who won the best debater in your group.
Let’s enjoy debating and have fun with taking 3 roles of the debate on the propositions.
なお、お時間のある方は、具体的にどういうAdvantage, Disadvantageがあり得るか、考えて、書いておかれるようお勧めします。頭の体操になります。ただ、プラクティスの時間が55分、1試合13分と短いので、今回は、evidence(証拠資料)は使わないことにします。ディベートのスタイルには、この他にも様々なバリエーションがある事も覚えておいて下さい。
詳しくは、参考文献などをご参照下さい。Amazonで入手可能です。

参考文献:
小西卓三・菅家知洋・Peter J. Collins, 『Let the Debate Begin! Effective Argumentation and Debate Techniques〔Teacher’s Edition〕-―英語で学ぶ論理的説得術――』、東海大学出版会、2007
松本茂・鈴木健・青沼智、『英語ディベート 理論と実践』、玉川大学出版部、2009
この他に、入門書として、以下がお薦めです。
安井省侍郎(著)Debate Forum出版会監修、『初心者のためのディベートQ&A』、第4版、Debate Forum出版会発行、2004
西部直樹、『「議論力」が身につく技術』、あさ出版、2003
小西卓三・菅家知洋・Peter J. Collins, 『Let the Debate Begin! Effective Argumentation and Debate Techniques―英語で学ぶ論理的説得術――』、東海大学出版会、2007(学生向け)
武田顕司、『ネコと学ぶディベートの本 日本一やさしいディベートの教科書』、デザインエッグ株式会社、第3版、2017
武田顕司、『ネコと練習するディベートの本 日本一やさしいディベートの問題集』、デザインエッグ株式会社、2017
専門書としては、以下などがあります。
ジョージ・W・シーゲルミューラー、ジャック・ケイ著、井上奈良彦監訳、『議論法 探求と弁論 第3版』、花書院、2006
The Editors of IDEA, 『The Debatabase Book: A Must-Have Guide for Successful Debate』, 6th ed., Introduction by Robert Trapp, International Debate Education Association, 2013.
Debbie Newman, Ben Woolgar (ed.), 『Pros and Cons: A Debater's Handbook』, 19th ed, Routledge, 2014.
Austin J. Freeley, David L. Steinberg, 『Argumentation and Debate: Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision Making』, 13th ed., Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2014
(追記 Additional suggestion for better ideas, arguments and responses.)
・Imagine what would happen if the proposition were actually adopted as a national policy of Japan from the actual standpoint of yourself, your family, your friends, your job, your community, other individuals, other companies, other groups, other regions, Japan as a whole and the other countries.
・Imagine actual advantages and disadvantages, impacts, process, obstacles, root cause and effects from the viewpoint of your and others’ daily practice, economy, business, politics, human relations, social welfare, traditions, customs, social career, education, securities, mental health, physical health, moral, ethics and so on.
・Imagine what would be the actual impact of your arguments for yourselves, family, community, job, regions, Japan, and the world.
・Think about what kind of impact, link the argument would have from adoption of the proposition as a national policy of Japan and to what extent it would be significant, whether it be economic, social, medical, mental, physical, vocational, technological, legal, ethical, educational, cultural, regional, domestic or international.
・Imagine and clarify what would be for actual 5W1H after the adoption of the proposition; who, what, when, where, why and how.8W6H might also be good; Why, What, Where, When, Who, Whom, Which, Whose, How, How much, How many, How long, How far, How often
・Compare your own ideas and thoughts with the others'. If you feel your arguments are superior or inferior, clarify the reasons. If you do think that the others’ ideas are superior, don’t hesitate to imitate those so that your arguments would be improved.
I expect fruitful debate practice for June 2nd!
(ヒント)
・具体的に、個人レベルで、各家計で、企業として、産業界として、地域として、国全体として、国際的にみて、どのような結果が起こり得るか、それぞれ考えて見ると、頭の中でこの政策の採否の影響をイメージしやすいです。
・自他の議論の因果関係(リンク)や質的量的影響の大きさ(インパクト)を考えると、肯定・否定の議論の比較衡量がしやすいです。
・政策のメリット(advantage), デメリット(disadvantage)、インパクトの大小、実現可能性、波及経路、根本原因、政策実現への障害と抜け道の有無と程度、代替政策の有無・是非と定年退職制度禁止との両立の可否、コスパ等を考えて見て下さい。
・各分野別の影響の有無と程度を考えて見て下さい。具体的には、日常生活、経済全体、個別企業、政治、人間関係、社会保障、伝統,慣習、個々人の経歴、教育、治安、国の安全保障、心身の健康、モラル、倫理等。
・政策の採否の影響を5W1H(Who, What, When, Where, Why and How)で考えるのも、1つの方法です。8W6Hという人もいます。Why, What, Where, When, Who, Whom, Which, Whose, How, How much, How many, How long, How far, How often
・自他の議論を比べてみて下さい。その違いと違う理由、どちらがより説得力があるか、優れているか、考えて見て下さい。そして、本当に他の人の議論の方が優れていると思ったら、その優れている点を自分の主張にどんどん取り入れてみて下さい。上手い人を真似る事は上達への一つの良い方法です。具体的な議論の例は、可能ならば、例会当日にお配りします。長文失礼。

Osamu MINAMIHASHI(南橋 理)

About 2018年05月

2018年05月にブログ「What's New at Kyoto NHK ESS?」に投稿されたすべてのエントリーです。新しい順に並んでいます。

前のアーカイブは2018年04月です。

他にも多くのエントリーがあります。メインページアーカイブページも見てください。

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